Solar panel systems have many different components if you are considering the construction itself of them. Here is a handy list of terms to know what they mean
1 -. Photovoltaic cells. These are the major part of each solar panel system. Also called PV cells, they usually have a small cell which is made of a silicone material under a glass screen. If the sun hits the cell, the silicon undergoes a reaction which is an electric charge, which creates collected by small wires. It changes from cell to cell, but may be any generally about one-half volt produce
2 -. Solar panels. This term refers to a collection of solar cells, which have been assembled into a single unit in a frame. A single panel is not sufficient to produce a lot of electricity for a home – especially one solar panel is not enough
3 -. Solar system. This means, planets aside (!), A connected set of solar panels, so that the whole system that you see on the roof of a house or building. A solar system will produce enough energy to power a house
4 -. Orientation. This is an important term. For the installation of a solar energy system, it is essential to think about the area where they will be installed. An important problem is that if there are shadows on the roof, will lead to a large decrease in the efficiency of the panels, so much so that to install it are not viable if the over-shadowing can be significant.
5 – DC. There are two types of current and this is the first type. Direct current is a current of electricity that flows in only one direction. Solar cells DC electricity – is a constant flow of electrons
6 -. Alternating current. This is the second type of the stream. It refers to electricity that flows constantly flicks between one way of a circuit and then flows the opposite way around a circuit. Typically, in your household, the current will change the way it flows between 50 and 60 times per second. Electrical appliances in your home require work alternating current, hence the next item on our list …
7 – inverter. This is an essential part of your solar system. As stated above, solar panels will generate a DC current, so that the current flowing in one direction. This does not work for household appliances. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the current from direct to alternating current. This is the role of an inverter. The other use is to take back the power to the main grid, the AC must not be DC, so that’s the second reason why a converter is needed.
Source: http://ezinearticles.com/?Solar-Panel-Systems—Terminology&id=6329495 by James EF Hawkins